I am S.Baba Partheban
Yarn-dyeing.blogspot.com is my blog, created with a view to share my experience and knowledge with people related to this industry. Wherever sources from other references were cited, due links to original source data have been mentioned with thanks.
My postal address is - 10 Ramanujam Nagar, Karur -639002, Tamilnadu, India and anybody can contact me regarding this blog thru my e-mail id firstname.lastname@example.org and you will be properly answered.
The content of this site, is written from my own experience in this field of textile processing.
In order to benefit the visitors who show specific interest on selected topics, Google's use of the DART cookie enables it to serve ads to you based on your visit to this site and other sites on the Internet.
Google DART uses third-party advertising companies to serve ads when you visit this website. These companies may use information (not including your name, address, email address, or telephone number) about your visits to this and other websites in order to provide advertisements about goods and services of interest to you. If you would like more information about this practice and to know your choices about not having this information used by these companies, click here
Other than DART Cookie used by Google Ad programs, I have not set any cookies or tracking codes directly in this website. However I have used a lot of Java Script of Google and other link partners in my "reciprocal-link-directory. htm" pages. If any one this publication affects anybody, I first apologize for it and if he/she could inform to the mail id email@example.com, I promise to do the needful.
This is a free blog that does not need anybody to sign in. But you can make your comments regarding the content, presentation and view and it will be properly attended and reviewed for your satisfaction.
Thanks for viewing my private policy. Bye.
February 27, 2008
Mercerisation is a process of treating cotton yarn or fabric in concentrated solution of caustic soda under tension for a specified time duration and washing off of the caustic solution under the same conditions. This process bestows the following important properties to cotton.
1) High dye affinity
3) Improved tensile strength
In this issue we are going to discuss about the machinery required for mercerising the yarn and the process and recipe details of mercerisation.
The yarn mercerising machine should have the following facilities to treat the yarn in high concentration of caustic lye.
1) A rotating hank holding device viz hank holding arm
2) A squeezing bowl
3) A shallow trough to hold the required volume of concentrated caustic dye
4) A device to make and keep the hank yarn under suitable tension.
5) A washing arrangement to remove the casutic lye from the yarn after the impregnating time is over.
6) A timer arrangement - either mechanically or electronically controlled device to hold the yarn iside the caustic bath for the required number of minutes and to wash it after exactly after the same number of minutes after impregnation.
Mercerisation Process Sequence:
1) Yarn hanks are evenly placed on the pair of rollers that hold the yarn hanks.
2) The hanks are properly positioned on the rollers. The rollers may be alligned either horizontally or vertically according to the machine design, rotating the rollers, with a view to confirm that the yarn hank does not get ruffled and the yarn strands remain perfectly parallel. Please note that the rollers must be capable of rolling on both directions.
3) Application of tension to the hank yarn, while rotating and raising the merceirising lye tray, till the lye covers the lower part of the rotating hanks. The yarn tension is measured in terms of increase in length between the rollers.
4) At this stage of the operation, the sqeezing roller should commnce sqeezing with a light sqeeze, so that the mercerising lye gets uniformly soaked in the yarn, in turn, an equal overall mercerising effect.
5) The light sqeeze is maintained. The yarn tension is increased to the maximum pre-determinded level and in maintained at this level. The time for which the maximum tension should be retained, depends on the yarn count, twist and the folded state of the yarn.
For each quality of yarn, this dwell time under tension should be worked out before-hand, so that the instructions can be rigourously followed by the operators.
6) At the end of the dwell time, the mercerising-lye-tray should be lowered. Excess lye taken up by the yarn is squeezed-out by applying higher pressure on squeezing rollers.After the squeeze out the lye tray is moved away.
7) The wash tray is brought in to position. Hot water is sprayed over the yarn hanks while it is still under the light sqeeze . The yarn tension should be maintained during the hot wash.
8) While still maintaining the yarn tension, the following measures should be taken:
(a) The squeezing pressure should ne raised in order to squeeze out the still remainling lye in the yarn.
(b) The squeezing pressure should be reduced to keep only a light squeeze.
(c) Cold water should be sprayed over the hank so as to wash out the yarn hank to an alkali free stage.
9) After completing the mercerising of the yarn, as indicated in the above stages, the squeeze and the tension on the hank are released. The hanks are then unloaded from the pair pf rollers for the next process, which may be bleaching, dyeing or plain drying.
If all the above stages are maintianed as said above the degree of mercerisation would be excellant.
1) The mercerising lye concentration is maintained at 250 to 300 grams/liter.
2) A powerful wetting agent that does not get affected by the high concentration of caustic lye is used between to 1 to 2 grams/liter.
3) The impregnation time depends on the quality of yarn and the lye strength. Ranges from 2 to 3 minutes.
February 24, 2008
Spray Dyeing Machine
AUTOMATIC SPRAY HANK DYEING MACHINE (ASHM)
The machine is a new technical evolution, which helps in the dyeing application of delicate yarns in hank form:
-woollen knitting yarns in cashmere, lambs wool, alpaca, mohair, wool and blends -natural silk yarns and blends with
Viscose and wool -filament viscose yarns -mercerized cotton yarns -acrylic knitting yarns, very-high bulk type (VHB).
ASHM is preset to simplify the manual hank loading and unloading operation and on request it may be delivered ready for automation of material handling, from hank reeling to dyeing and drying.
TECHNICAL FEATURES AND ADVANTAGES
· Pressurized operation by air cushion, up to a maximum temperature of 102°C at sea level, independent from atmospheric pressure variations: reduction of dyeing time and higher dyestuffs exhaust rates.
· Structure entirely made of high thickness stainless steel plate: long-term mechanical reliability.
· Inclined roof of special design: no drippings on the hanks.
· Pressure-tight inspection porthole: up to 102'C operation for additional safety.
· Internal lighting on upper side of hanks: easy inspection of material.
· Hank loading/unloading door made of high-thickness plate and equipped with sealing gasket: no steam leakages in dye house’s environment; steady dyeing liquor temperature; reduction of steam
Hank yarn Dyeing - A gentle treatment:
Many types of yarns used in weft knitting and some types of knitted articles require very gentle handling under the hot wet conditions imposed during dyeing. Where the yarn bulk, stretch and texture must be retained at a high level, the conventional package-dyeing route is often considered to be inappropriate.
This is because the yarn tension imposed during the winding of the package can decrease the yarn bulk resulting in a dyed yarn with a leaner appearance and handle. This is not always desirable for weft knitted fabrics and garments in which a more voluminous yarn can add greatly to the surface appearance and aesthetics. The tendency to pressure load yarn packages in cheese form can further cause textured yarns to lose crimp, bulk and texture because of the yarn extension during compression loading and then dyeing under hot wet conditions.
In addition many forms of small knitted articles such as tights, pantyhose and socks require more delicate handling. It is not desirable to subject such articles to excessive hydraulic or mechanical forces, particularly under hot wet
In addition many forms of small knitted articles such as tights, pantyhose and socks require more delicate handling. It is not desirable to subject such articles to excessive hydraulic or mechanical forces, particularly under hot wet conditions where dimensional changes or distortions may occur. Thus for a number of yarns and weft knitted articles the use of cabinet and spray dyeing systems has evolved as the most satisfactory type of dyeing machines.
Then, What is inside a cabinet dyeing machine?
As the name suggests, a cabinet dyeing machine is machine with 2 to 4 chambers, just like a steel chest. In each chamber there are grooves on both sidewalls to hold the yarn hanging poles. In the bottom of the machine, there is a round-bottomed chamber.
In that chamber you will find a powerful agitator or fan to circulate the water inside the machine between the chambers. The top of the machine would be fixed with a round-bottomed hood and a chamber opening passage to communicate the two chamber columns. During the running of the machine, the water from one column of chambers would be forcibly sent to the other chamber with the help of the powerful propeller in the bottom chamber.
There is a water level indicator tube on the outside of the machine parallel to the machine and there will be a stock tank outside the machine fitted with suitable pumps to pump-in the dyes and chemicals in to the machine. The bottom chamber will be fitted with a indirect and direct steam coils, controlled with solenoid valves and thermostat system.