February 27, 2008

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Yarn Mercerisation -Part-1

Yarn mercerising machine

What is mercerisation?
Mercerisation is a process of treating cotton yarn or fabric in concentrated solution of caustic soda under tension for a specified time duration and washing off of the caustic solution under the same conditions. This process bestows the following important properties to cotton.

1) High dye affinity
2) Lusture
3) Improved tensile strength

In this issue we are going to discuss about the machinery required for mercerising the yarn and the process and recipe details of mercerisation.

Machinery Required:
The yarn mercerising machine should have the following facilities to treat the yarn in high concentration of caustic lye.
1) A rotating hank holding device viz hank holding arm
2) A squeezing bowl
3) A shallow trough to hold the required volume of concentrated caustic dye
4) A device to make and keep the hank yarn under suitable tension.
5) A washing arrangement to remove the casutic lye from the yarn after the impregnating time is over.
6) A timer arrangement - either mechanically or electronically controlled device to hold the yarn iside the caustic bath for the required number of minutes and to wash it after exactly after the same number of minutes after impregnation.

Mercerisation Process Sequence:
1) Yarn hanks are evenly placed on the pair of rollers that hold the yarn hanks.
2) The hanks are properly positioned on the rollers. The rollers may be alligned either horizontally or vertically according to the machine design, rotating the rollers, with a view to confirm that the yarn hank does not get ruffled and the yarn strands remain perfectly parallel. Please note that the rollers must be capable of rolling on both directions.
3) Application of tension to the hank yarn, while rotating and raising the merceirising lye tray, till the lye covers the lower part of the rotating hanks. The yarn tension is measured in terms of increase in length between the rollers.
4) At this stage of the operation, the sqeezing roller should commnce sqeezing with a light sqeeze, so that the mercerising lye gets uniformly soaked in the yarn, in turn, an equal overall mercerising effect.
5) The light sqeeze is maintained. The yarn tension is increased to the maximum pre-determinded level and in maintained at this level. The time for which the maximum tension should be retained, depends on the yarn count, twist and the folded state of the yarn.
For each quality of yarn, this dwell time under tension should be worked out before-hand, so that the instructions can be rigourously followed by the operators.
6) At the end of the dwell time, the mercerising-lye-tray should be lowered. Excess lye taken up by the yarn is squeezed-out by applying higher pressure on squeezing rollers.After the squeeze out the lye tray is moved away.
7) The wash tray is brought in to position. Hot water is sprayed over the yarn hanks while it is still under the light sqeeze . The yarn tension should be maintained during the hot wash.
8) While still maintaining the yarn tension, the following measures should be taken:
(a) The squeezing pressure should ne raised in order to squeeze out the still remainling lye in the yarn.
(b) The squeezing pressure should be reduced to keep only a light squeeze.
(c) Cold water should be sprayed over the hank so as to wash out the yarn hank to an alkali free stage.
9) After completing the mercerising of the yarn, as indicated in the above stages, the squeeze and the tension on the hank are released. The hanks are then unloaded from the pair pf rollers for the next process, which may be bleaching, dyeing or plain drying.

If all the above stages are maintianed as said above the degree of mercerisation would be excellant.

Recipe Details:

1) The mercerising lye concentration is maintained at 250 to 300 grams/liter.
2) A powerful wetting agent that does not get affected by the high concentration of caustic lye is used between to 1 to 2 grams/liter.
3) The impregnation time depends on the quality of yarn and the lye strength. Ranges from 2 to 3 minutes.

February 24, 2008

Spray Dyeing Machine - Features

Spray Dyeing Machine

The machine is a new technical evolution, which helps in the dyeing application of delicate yarns in hank form:
-woollen knitting yarns in cashmere, lambs wool, alpaca, mohair, wool and blends -natural silk yarns and blends with
Viscose and wool -filament viscose yarns -mercerized cotton yarns -acrylic knitting yarns, very-high bulk type (VHB).
ASHM is preset to simplify the manual hank loading and unloading operation and on request it may be delivered ready for automation of material handling, from hank reeling to dyeing and drying.

· Pressurized operation by air cushion, up to a maximum temperature of 102°C at sea level, independent from atmospheric pressure variations: reduction of dyeing time and higher dyestuffs exhaust rates.
· Structure entirely made of high thickness stainless steel plate: long-term mechanical reliability.
· Inclined roof of special design: no drippings on the hanks.
· Pressure-tight inspection porthole: up to 102'C operation for additional safety.
· Internal lighting on upper side of hanks: easy inspection of material.
· Hank loading/unloading door made of high-thickness plate and equipped with sealing gasket: no steam leakages in dye house’s environment; steady dyeing liquor temperature; reduction of steam

Features of Cabinet Dyeing Machine - an overview

Hank yarn Dyeing - A gentle treatment:

Many types of yarns used in weft knitting and some types of knitted articles require very gentle handling under the hot wet conditions imposed during dyeing. Where the yarn bulk, stretch and texture must be retained at a high level, the conventional package-dyeing route is often considered to be inappropriate.

This is because the yarn tension imposed during the winding of the package can decrease the yarn bulk resulting in a dyed yarn with a leaner appearance and handle. This is not always desirable for weft knitted fabrics and garments in which a more voluminous yarn can add greatly to the surface appearance and aesthetics. The tendency to pressure load yarn packages in cheese form can further cause textured yarns to lose crimp, bulk and texture because of the yarn extension during compression loading and then dyeing under hot wet conditions.

In addition many forms of small knitted articles such as tights, pantyhose and socks require more delicate handling. It is not desirable to subject such articles to excessive hydraulic or mechanical forces, particularly under hot wet

In addition many forms of small knitted articles such as tights, pantyhose and socks require more delicate handling. It is not desirable to subject such articles to excessive hydraulic or mechanical forces, particularly under hot wet conditions where dimensional changes or distortions may occur. Thus for a number of yarns and weft knitted articles the use of cabinet and spray dyeing systems has evolved as the most satisfactory type of dyeing machines.

Then, What is inside a cabinet dyeing machine?

As the name suggests, a cabinet dyeing machine is machine with 2 to 4 chambers, just like a steel chest. In each chamber there are grooves on both sidewalls to hold the yarn hanging poles. In the bottom of the machine, there is a round-bottomed chamber.

In that chamber you will find a powerful agitator or fan to circulate the water inside the machine between the chambers. The top of the machine would be fixed with a round-bottomed hood and a chamber opening passage to communicate the two chamber columns. During the running of the machine, the water from one column of chambers would be forcibly sent to the other chamber with the help of the powerful propeller in the bottom chamber.

There is a water level indicator tube on the outside of the machine parallel to the machine and there will be a stock tank outside the machine fitted with suitable pumps to pump-in the dyes and chemicals in to the machine. The bottom chamber will be fitted with a indirect and direct steam coils, controlled with solenoid valves and thermostat system.